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Хрен обыкновенный

Cochlearia armoracia — Flora Batava — Volume v4.jpg

Стебель прямой, ветвистый, высотой 50—150 см.

Прикорневые листья очень крупные, продолговатые или продолговато-овальные, городчатые, при основании сердцевидные; нижние — перисто-раздельные; продолговато-ланцетные; верхние — линейные, цельнокрайние.

Чашечка длиной около 3 мм; лепестки длиной около 6 мм, белые, коротко-ноготковые.

Плоды — стручочки, продолговато-овальные, вздутые, длиной 5—6 мм; створки сетчато-жилковатые, гнёзда с 4 семенами.

Ботаническое описание

Корневая система стержневая. Встречаются видоизменения корней — корнеплоды (редис, репа).

Листья у капустных простые, с очерёдным расположением, без прилистников. Часто имеется прикорневая розетка листьев (пастушья сумка, арабидопсис). Стебель может быть утолщён и образовывать надземный клубень с листьями (капуста кольраби).

Цветки актиноморфные, реже — зигоморфные, обоеполые, с двойным околоцветником, четырёхчленные, четыре чашелистика, тычинок — шесть. Соцветие — кисть.

Тип плода — стручок, реже стручочек.

Часто капустные запасают в вакуолях глюкозинолаты, а в цитоплазме фермент мирозиназу.

Значение и применение [ править ]

На Руси хрен предположительно начали выращивать с IX века, использовали его издавна как пряность и как лекарственное растение. В Европу хрен попал в начале XV века. Особую популярность он приобрёл в Германии и странах Прибалтики. Англичане называли хрен «конским редисом» (англ.  horseradish ) и использовали его исключительно в лекарственных целях. В настоящее время хрен культивируется во многих странах мира, в основном как овощная культура.

Культивирование [ править ]

К почве хрен нетребователен, но для формирования хороших массивных корней ему необходимы плодородные, суглинистые или супесчаные почвы. Предпочитает в меру влажные, хорошо освещённые места. Размножается отрезками корневища. Избыток азота в подкормке приводит к чрезмерному ветвлению корней. Корни можно выкапывать начиная со второго года жизни растения. Делать это нужно поздней осенью после отмирания листьев или ранней весной до их появления.

Применение в кулинарии [ править ]

Наибольшее применение хрен находит как пряно-вкусовая добавка в кулинарии, где используются свежие тёртые или нарезанные корни, а также листья; как пряность при засолке и мариновании огурцов, томатов, грибов, красной свёклы и при квашении капусты. Корни используют для приготовления одноимённой приправы — хрена, а также как часть более сложных смесей, например, соуса, кваса с хреном, хреновухи.

Издавна хрен в смеси с другими компонентами является незаменимой приправой к холодцу и рыбному заливному, а также к холодному отварному мясу. Хрен подаётся к жареному мясу, сосискам, копчёному мясу, ветчине, жирной свинине, варёной говядине, языку и ростбифу. Добавляется в различные майонезы, творог, йогурт, квашеную капусту, огурцы и другие овощи. Эти смеси подают к жареному и варёному мясу, рыбе, холодным закускам.

Смесь тёртого хрена со сметаной или же с яблоками служит хорошей приправой к рыбе, особенно карпу, треске, угрю и лососю.

Применение в медицине [ править ]

В России и на Руси хрен с давних пор широко применялся в народной медицине. Сок корня обладает выраженными антибактериальными свойствами, используется при гриппе, для полоскания полости рта и горла при ангине, тонзиллите, зубной боли, его закладывают в уши при воспалении и гнойных выделениях. Свежий сок хрена и его водные разведения усиливают выделение соляной кислоты в желудке и эффективны при лечении анацидных гастритов (употребление хрена опасно при воспалительных заболеваниях пищеварительного тракта, печени и почек). В эксперименте было показано, что водный отвар хрена оказывает положительное влияние при лечении дизентерии, заболеваний печени и лямблиоза, а также гипертонической болезни. Благодаря высокому содержанию во всех частях растения витамина C хрен применяют как вспомогательное средство при лечении вирусного гепатита. Корень, сваренный в пиве с можжевёловыми ягодами, употребляется при водянке.

В народной медицине хрен применяли как средство, повышающее аппетит, для улучшения деятельности пищеварительного тракта, при отёках, болезнях почек, мочевого пузыря и печени, как отхаркивающее при воспалении верхних дыхательных путей. При цинге, склонности к кровотечениям, физическом и умственном истощении, малярии употребляли настойку корней хрена внутрь, а кашицу в виде компресса как местное раздражающее и отвлекающее средство (несколько слабее горчицы) использовали наружно при радикулите, подагре, ревматизме, а также для лечения гнойных ран. Петром Великим был издан указ, согласно которому в каждом подворье должно быть по несколько четвертей хреновой водки, особенно для тех людей, кто занят физическим трудом. Примочки с тёртым хреном используют при ушибах и грибковых поражениях кожи.

В косметике настоем хрена выводят веснушки, пятна и загар на лице.

Пословицы и поговорки [ править ]

  • Ефрем любит хрен, а Федька — редьку.
  • На чужбине и сладкое в горчицу, а на родине и хрен за леденец.
  • Не рад хрен тёрке, а по ней боками пляшет.
  • Привет за привет и любовь за любовь, а завистливому — хрену да перцу, и то не с нашего стола.
  • Пришла редька, да хрен, да книга Ефрем (великий пост).
  • Семь лет червяк в хрене зимовал, а вкуса не познал (украинская).
  • Та же щука, да под хреном.
  • Хрен дёшев, да что толку в нём? (Украинская.)
  • Хрен редьки не слаще (хрен редьки не слаще, чёрт дьявола не легче; хрен редьки не слаще, уголь сажи не белей).
  • Что хрен, что горчица — невелика разница (украинская).

Contents

Horseradish grows up to 1.5 meters (5 feet) tall, with hairless bright green unlobed leaves up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long that may be mistaken for docks (Rumex). [2] : 423 It is cultivated primarily for its large, white, tapered root. [3] [4] [5] [6] The white four-petalled flowers are scented and are borne in dense panicles. [2] Established plants may form extensive patches [2] and may become invasive unless carefully managed. [7]

Intact horseradish root has little aroma. When cut or grated, enzymes from within the plant cells digest sinigrin (a glucosinolate) to produce allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil), which irritates the mucous membranes of the sinuses and eyes. Once exposed to air or heat, horseradish loses its pungency, darkens in color, and develops a bitter flavor.

The word horseradish is attested in English from the 1590s. It combines the word horse (formerly used in a figurative sense to mean strong or coarse) and the word radish. [17]

In Central and Eastern Europe, horseradish is called khren, hren and ren (in various spellings like kren) in many Slavic languages, in Austria, in parts of Germany (where the other German name Meerrettich is not used), in North-East Italy, and in Yiddish (כריין transliterated as khreyn). It is common in Ukraine (under the name of хрін , khrin), in Belarus (under the name of хрэн , chren), in Poland (under the name of chrzan), in the Czech Republic (křen), in Slovakia (chren), in Russia ( хрен , khren), in Hungary (torma), in Romania (hrean), in Lithuania (krienai), and in Bulgaria (under the name of хрян ).

Horseradish is perennial in hardiness zones 2–9 and can be grown as an annual in other zones, although not as successfully as in zones with both a long growing season and winter temperatures cold enough to ensure plant dormancy. After the first frost in autumn kills the leaves, the root is dug and divided. The main root is harvested and one or more large offshoots of the main root are replanted to produce next year’s crop. Horseradish left undisturbed in the garden spreads via underground shoots and can become invasive. Older roots left in the ground become woody, after which they are no longer culinarily useful, although older plants can be dug and re-divided to start new plants. [13] The early season leaves can be distinctively different, asymmetric spiky, before the mature typical flat broad leaves start to be developed.

Pests and diseases

Widely introduced by accident, «cabbageworms», the larvae of Pieris rapae, the small white butterfly, are a common caterpillar pest in horseradish. The adults are white butterflies with black spots on the forewings that are commonly seen flying around plants during the day. The caterpillars are velvety green with faint yellow stripes running lengthwise down the back and sides. Fully grown caterpillars are about 25-millimetre (1 in) in length. They move sluggishly when prodded. They overwinter in green pupal cases. Adults start appearing in gardens after the last frost and are a problem through the remainder of the growing season. There are three to five overlapping generations a year. Mature caterpillars chew large, ragged holes in the leaves leaving the large veins intact. Handpicking is an effective control strategy in home gardens. [18]

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30,000 metric tonnes of horseradish are produced in Europe annually, of which Hungary produces 12,000, making it the biggest single producer. [19]

The distinctive pungent taste of horseradish is from the compound allyl isothiocyanate. Upon crushing the flesh of horseradish, the enzyme myrosinase is released and acts on the glucosinolates sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, which are precursors to the allyl isothiocyanate. [ citation needed ] The allyl isothiocyanate serves the plant as a natural defense against herbivores. Since allyl isothiocyanate is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate from the enzyme myrosinase. When an animal chews the plant, the allyl isothiocyanate is released, repelling the animal. [20] Allyl isothiocyanate is an unstable compound, degrading over the course of days at 37 °C (99 °F). [21] Because of this instability, horseradish sauces lack the pungency of the freshly crushed roots. [ citation needed ]

Cooks may use the terms «horseradish» or «prepared horseradish» to refer to the mashed root of the horseradish plant mixed with vinegar. [ citation needed ] Prepared horseradish is white to creamy-beige in color. It can be stored for months under refrigeration, but eventually will darken, indicating less flavour. [ citation needed ] The leaves of the plant are edible, either cooked or raw when young, [22] with a flavor similar to the roots. [ citation needed ]

Horseradish sauce

Horseradish sauce made from grated horseradish root and vinegar is a common condiment in the United Kingdom and in Poland. [23] In the UK, it is usually served with roast beef, often as part of a traditional Sunday roast, but can be used in a number of other dishes, including sandwiches or salads. A variation of horseradish sauce, which in some cases may substitute the vinegar with other products like lemon juice or citric acid, is known in Germany as Tafelmeerrettich. Also common in the UK is Tewkesbury mustard, a blend of mustard and grated horseradish originating in medieval times and mentioned by Shakespeare (Falstaff says: «his wit’s as thick as Tewkesbury Mustard» in Henry IV Part II [24] ). A similar mustard, called Krensenf or Meerrettichsenf, is common in Austria and parts of Germany. In France, sauce au raifort is used in Alsatian cuisine. In Russia, horseradish root is usually mixed with grated garlic and small amount of tomatoes for color.

In the US, the term «horseradish sauce» refers to grated horseradish combined with mayonnaise or salad dressing. Prepared horseradish is a common ingredient in Bloody Mary cocktails and in cocktail sauce, and is used as a sauce or sandwich spread. Horseradish cream is a mixture of horseradish and sour cream and is served with au jus for a prime rib dinner. [ citation needed ]

Vegetable

In Europe, there are two varieties of chrain. «Red» chrain is mixed with red beetroot and «white» chrain contains no beetroot. Chrain is a part of Christian Easter and Jewish Passover tradition (as maror) in Eastern and Central Europe.

  • In parts of Southern Germany like Franconia, «kren» is a component of the traditional wedding dinner. It is served with cooked beef and a dip made from lingonberry to balance the slight hotness of the Kren.
  • In Poland, a variety with red beetroot is called ćwikła z chrzanem or simply ćwikła.
  • In Ashkenazi European Jewish cooking beetroot horseradish is commonly served with gefilte fish.
  • In Transylvania and other Romanian regions, red beetroot with horseradish is used as a salad served with lamb dishes at Easter called sfecla cu hrean.
  • In Serbia, ren is an essential condiment with cooked meat and freshly roasted suckling pig.
  • In Croatia, freshly grated horseradish (Croatian: Hren) is often eaten with boiled ham or beef.
  • In Slovenia, and in the adjacent Italian regions of Friuli Venezia Giulia and nearby Italian region of Veneto, horseradish (often grated and mixed with sour cream, vinegar, hard-boiled eggs, or apples) is also a traditional Easter dish.
  • In the Italian regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, and Piedmont, it is called «barbaforte (strong beard)» and is a traditional accompaniment to bollito misto; while in northeastern regions like Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, [25]Veneto[26] and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, [27][28] it is still called «kren» or «cren». In the southern region of Basilicata it is known as «rafano» and used for the preparation of the so-called «rafanata», a main course made of horseradish, eggs, cheese and sausage. [29]
  • Horseradish is also used as a main ingredient for soups. In Poland, horseradish soup is a common Easter Day dish. [30]

Relation to wasabi

Outside Japan, the Japanese condiment wasabi, although traditionally prepared from the true wasabi plant (Wasabia japonica), is now usually made with horseradish due to the scarcity of the wasabi plant. [31] The Japanese botanical name for horseradish is seiyōwasabi ( セイヨウワサビ, 西洋山葵 ) , or «Western wasabi». Both plants are members of the family Brassicaceae.

In a 100-gram amount, prepared horseradish provides 48 calories and has high content of vitamin C with moderate content of sodium, folate and dietary fiber, while other essential nutrients are negligible in content. [32] In a typical serving of one tablespoon (15 grams), horseradish supplies no significant nutrient content. [32]

Horseradish contains volatile oils, notably mustard oil. [20]

The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), found in the plant, is used extensively in molecular biology and biochemistry primarily for its ability to amplify a weak signal and increase detectability of a target molecule. [33] HRP has been used in decades of research to visualize under microscopy and assess non-quantitatively the permeability of capillaries, particularly those of the brain. [34]

Horseradish

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, cabbage, and radish). It is a root vegetable, cultivated and used worldwide as a spice and as a condiment. The species is probably native to southeastern Europe and western Asia.

Description

Horseradish grows up to 1.5 meters (5 feet) tall, with hairless bright green unlobed leaves up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) long that may be mistaken for docks (Rumex). [2] : 423 It is cultivated primarily for its large, white, tapered root. [3] [4] [5] [6] The white four-petalled flowers are scented and are borne in dense panicles. [2] Established plants may form extensive patches [2] and may become invasive unless carefully managed. [7]

Intact horseradish root has little aroma. When cut or grated, enzymes from within the plant cells digest sinigrin (a glucosinolate) to produce allyl isothiocyanate (mustard oil), which irritates the mucous membranes of the sinuses and eyes. Once exposed to air or heat, horseradish loses its pungency, darkens in color, and develops a bitter flavor.

History

Horseradish has been cultivated since antiquity. [8] According to Greek mythology, the Delphic Oracle told Apollo that the horseradish was worth its weight in gold. [9] Dioscorides listed horseradish equally as Persicon sinapi (Diosc. 2.186) or Sinapi persicum (Diosc. 2.168), [10] which Pliny’s Natural History reported as Persicon napy; [11] Cato discusses the plant in his treatises on agriculture, and a mural in Pompeii shows the plant. Horseradish is probably the plant mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History under the name of Amoracia, and recommended by him for its medicinal qualities, and possibly the wild radish, or raphanos agrios of the Greeks. The early Renaissance herbalists Pietro Andrea Mattioli and John Gerard showed it under Raphanus. [12] Its modern Linnaean genus Armoracia was first applied to it by Heinrich Bernhard Ruppius, in his Flora Jenensis, 1745, but Linnaeus himself called it Cochlearia armoracia.

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Both root and leaves were used as a traditional medicine during the Middle Ages. The root was used as a condiment on meats in Germany, Scandinavia, and Britain. It was introduced to North America during European colonization; [13] both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson mention horseradish in garden accounts. [14] Native Americans used it to stimulate the glands, stave off scurvy, and as a diaphoretic treatment for the common cold. [15]

William Turner mentions horseradish as Red Cole in his «Herbal» (1551–1568), but not as a condiment. In The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes (1597), John Gerard describes it under the name of raphanus rusticanus, stating that it occurs wild in several parts of England. After referring to its medicinal uses, he says:

[T]he Horse Radish stamped with a little vinegar put thereto, is commonly used among the Germans for sauce to eat fish with and such like meats as we do mustard. [16]

Etymology and common names

The word horseradish is attested in English from the 1590s. It combines the word horse (formerly used in a figurative sense to mean strong or coarse) and the word radish. [17]

In Central and Eastern Europe, horseradish is called khren, hren and ren (in various spellings like kren) in many Slavic languages, in Austria, in parts of Germany (where the other German name Meerrettich is not used), in North-East Italy, and in Yiddish (כריין transliterated as khreyn). It is common in Ukraine (under the name of хрін , khrin), in Belarus (under the name of хрэн , chren), in Poland (under the name of chrzan), in the Czech Republic (křen), in Slovakia (chren), in Russia ( хрен , khren), in Hungary (torma), in Romania (hrean), in Lithuania (krienai), and in Bulgaria (under the name of хрян ).

Cultivation

Horseradish is perennial in hardiness zones 2–9 and can be grown as an annual in other zones, although not as successfully as in zones with both a long growing season and winter temperatures cold enough to ensure plant dormancy. After the first frost in autumn kills the leaves, the root is dug and divided. The main root is harvested and one or more large offshoots of the main root are replanted to produce next year’s crop. Horseradish left undisturbed in the garden spreads via underground shoots and can become invasive. Older roots left in the ground become woody, after which they are no longer culinarily useful, although older plants can be dug and re-divided to start new plants. [13] The early season leaves can be distinctively different, asymmetric spiky, before the mature typical flat broad leaves start to be developed.

Pests and diseases

Widely introduced by accident, «cabbageworms», the larvae of Pieris rapae, the small white butterfly, are a common caterpillar pest in horseradish. The adults are white butterflies with black spots on the forewings that are commonly seen flying around plants during the day. The caterpillars are velvety green with faint yellow stripes running lengthwise down the back and sides. Fully grown caterpillars are about 25-millimetre (1 in) in length. They move sluggishly when prodded. They overwinter in green pupal cases. Adults start appearing in gardens after the last frost and are a problem through the remainder of the growing season. There are three to five overlapping generations a year. Mature caterpillars chew large, ragged holes in the leaves leaving the large veins intact. Handpicking is an effective control strategy in home gardens. [18]

Production

30,000 metric tonnes of horseradish are produced in Europe annually, of which Hungary produces 12,000, making it the biggest single producer. [19]

Culinary uses

The distinctive pungent taste of horseradish is from the compound allyl isothiocyanate. Upon crushing the flesh of horseradish, the enzyme myrosinase is released and acts on the glucosinolates sinigrin and gluconasturtiin, which are precursors to the allyl isothiocyanate. [ citation needed ] The allyl isothiocyanate serves the plant as a natural defense against herbivores. Since allyl isothiocyanate is harmful to the plant itself, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate from the enzyme myrosinase. When an animal chews the plant, the allyl isothiocyanate is released, repelling the animal. [20] Allyl isothiocyanate is an unstable compound, degrading over the course of days at 37 °C (99 °F). [21] Because of this instability, horseradish sauces lack the pungency of the freshly crushed roots. [ citation needed ]

Cooks may use the terms «horseradish» or «prepared horseradish» to refer to the mashed root of the horseradish plant mixed with vinegar. [ citation needed ] Prepared horseradish is white to creamy-beige in color. It can be stored for months under refrigeration, but eventually will darken, indicating less flavour. [ citation needed ] The leaves of the plant are edible, either cooked or raw when young, [22] with a flavor similar to the roots. [ citation needed ]

Horseradish sauce

Horseradish sauce made from grated horseradish root and vinegar is a common condiment in the United Kingdom and in Poland. [23] In the UK, it is usually served with roast beef, often as part of a traditional Sunday roast, but can be used in a number of other dishes, including sandwiches or salads. A variation of horseradish sauce, which in some cases may substitute the vinegar with other products like lemon juice or citric acid, is known in Germany as Tafelmeerrettich. Also available in the UK is Tewkesbury mustard, a blend of mustard and grated horseradish originating in medieval times and mentioned by Shakespeare (Falstaff says: «his wit’s as thick as Tewkesbury Mustard» in Henry IV Part II [24] ). A similar mustard, called Krensenf or Meerrettichsenf, is common in Austria and parts of Germany. In France, sauce au raifort is used in Alsatian cuisine. In Russia, horseradish root is usually mixed with grated garlic and small amount of tomatoes for color (Khrenovina sauce).

In the US, the term «horseradish sauce» refers to grated horseradish combined with mayonnaise or salad dressing. Prepared horseradish is a common ingredient in Bloody Mary cocktails and in cocktail sauce, and is used as a sauce or sandwich spread. Horseradish cream is a mixture of horseradish and sour cream and is served with au jus for a prime rib dinner. [ citation needed ]

Vegetable

In Europe, there are two varieties of chrain. «Red» chrain is mixed with red beetroot and «white» chrain contains no beetroot. Chrain is a part of Christian Easter and Jewish Passover tradition (as maror) in Eastern and Central Europe.

  • In parts of Southern Germany like Franconia, «kren» is a component of the traditional wedding dinner. It is served with cooked beef and a dip made from lingonberry to balance the slight hotness of the Kren.
  • In Poland, a variety with red beetroot is called ćwikła z chrzanem or simply ćwikła.
  • In Russia, a very popular ingredient for pickles (cucumbers, tomatoes, mushrooms).
  • In Ashkenazi European Jewish cooking, beetroot horseradish is commonly served with gefilte fish.
  • In Transylvania and other Romanian regions, red beetroot with horseradish is used as a salad served with lamb dishes at Easter called sfecla cu hrean.
  • In Serbia, ren is an essential condiment with cooked meat and freshly roasted suckling pig.
  • In Croatia, freshly grated horseradish (Croatian: Hren) is often eaten with boiled ham or beef.
  • In Slovenia, and in the adjacent Italian regions of Friuli Venezia Giulia and nearby Italian region of Veneto, horseradish (often grated and mixed with sour cream, vinegar, hard-boiled eggs, or apples) is also a traditional Easter dish.
  • In the Italian regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, and Piedmont, it is called «barbaforte (strong beard)» and is a traditional accompaniment to bollito misto; while in northeastern regions like Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, [25]Veneto[26] and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, [27][28] it is still called «kren» or «cren». In the southern region of Basilicata it is known as «rafano» and used for the preparation of the so-called «rafanata», a main course made of horseradish, eggs, cheese and sausage. [29]
  • Horseradish is also used as a main ingredient for soups. In Poland, horseradish soup is a common Easter Day dish. [30]
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Relation to wasabi

Outside Japan, the Japanese condiment wasabi, although traditionally prepared from the true wasabi plant (Wasabia japonica), is now usually made with horseradish due to the scarcity of the wasabi plant. [31] The Japanese botanical name for horseradish is seiyōwasabi ( セイヨウワサビ, 西洋山葵 ) , or «Western wasabi». Both plants are members of the family Brassicaceae.

Nutritional content

In a 100-gram amount, prepared horseradish provides 48 calories and has high content of vitamin C with moderate content of sodium, folate and dietary fiber, while other essential nutrients are negligible in content. [32] In a typical serving of one tablespoon (15 grams), horseradish supplies no significant nutrient content. [32]

Horseradish contains volatile oils, notably mustard oil. [20]

Biomedical uses

The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), found in the plant, is used extensively in molecular biology and biochemistry primarily for its ability to amplify a weak signal and increase detectability of a target molecule. [33] HRP has been used in decades of research to visualize under microscopy and assess non-quantitatively the permeability of capillaries, particularly those of the brain. [34]

O sabor picante característico da raiz-forte é proveniente do composto alil isotiocianato . Ao esmagar a polpa do rábano, a enzima mirosinase é liberada e atua sobre os glucosinolatos sinigrina e gluconasturtiína , precursores do isotiocianato de alila. [ carece de fontes? ] O isotiocianato de alila serve a planta como uma defesa natural contra herbívoros. Como o isotiocianato de alila é prejudicial à própria planta, ele é armazenado na forma inofensiva de glucosinolato, separado da enzima mirosinase. Quando um animal mastiga a planta, o isotiocianato de alila é liberado, repelindo o animal. [20] O isotiocianato de alila é um composto instável, que se degrada ao longo dos dias a 37 ° C (99 ° F). [21] Devido a essa instabilidade, os molhos de raiz forte não têm a pungência das raízes recém-trituradas. [ citação necessária ]

Os cozinheiros podem usar os termos «raiz-forte» ou «raiz-forte preparada» para se referir à raiz triturada da planta raiz-forte misturada com vinagre . [ carece de fontes? ] O rábano preparado é de cor branca a bege cremosa. Pode ser armazenado por meses sob refrigeração, mas eventualmente escurece, indicando menos sabor. [ carece de fontes? ] As folhas da planta são comestíveis, cozidas ou cruas quando jovens, [22] com um sabor semelhante ao das raízes. [ citação necessária ]

Molho de rábano

Molho de raiz-forte feito de raiz de raiz-forte ralada e vinagre é um condimento comum no Reino Unido e na Polônia . [23] No Reino Unido, geralmente é servido com rosbife, muitas vezes como parte de um tradicional assado de domingo , mas pode ser usado em uma série de outros pratos, incluindo sanduíches ou saladas. Uma variação do molho de raiz-forte, que em alguns casos pode substituir o vinagre por outros produtos como suco de limão ou ácido cítrico , é conhecida na Alemanha como Tafelmeerrettich . Também disponível no Reino Unido está a mostarda Tewkesbury , uma mistura de mostarda e raiz-forte ralada originária da época medieval e mencionada porShakespeare ( Falstaff diz: «sua inteligência é tão espessa quanto a mostarda de Tewkesbury» em Henrique IV, parte II [24] ). Uma mostarda semelhante, chamada Krensenf ou Meerrettichsenf , é comum na Áustria e em partes da Alemanha. Na França , o molho au raifort é usado na culinária da Alsácia . Na Rússia , a raiz de rábano é geralmente misturada com alho ralado e uma pequena quantidade de tomate para dar cor ( molho Khrenovina ).

Nos Estados Unidos, o termo «molho de raiz-forte» refere-se a raiz-forte ralada combinada com maionese ou molho para salada. A raiz-forte preparada é um ingrediente comum em coquetéis Bloody Mary e em molhos de coquetel , e é usada como molho ou pasta para sanduíches. O creme de rábano é uma mistura de rábano e creme de leite e é servido com au jus para um jantar de costela . [ citação necessária ]

Vegetal

Na Europa, existem duas variedades de chrain . A chrain «vermelha» é misturada com beterraba vermelha e a chrain «branca» não contém beterraba. Chrain faz parte da tradição cristã da Páscoa e da Páscoa judaica (como maror ) na Europa Central e Oriental.

  • Em partes do sul da Alemanha, como a Francônia , o «kren» é um componente do jantar de casamento tradicional. É servido com carne cozida e um molho à base de mirtilo para equilibrar o ligeiro calor do Kren.
  • Na Polônia , uma variedade com beterraba vermelha é chamada ćwikła z chrzanem ou simplesmente ćwikła.
  • Na Rússia , um ingrediente muito popular para picles (pepinos, tomates, cogumelos).
  • Na culinária judaica europeia de Ashkenazi, a raiz — forte de beterraba é comumente servida com peixe gefilte .
  • Na Transilvânia e em outras regiões romenas, a beterraba vermelha com raiz-forte é usada como salada servida com pratos de cordeiro na Páscoa, chamada sfecla cu hrean .
  • Na Sérvia , o ren é um condimento essencial com carne cozida e leitão recém-assado.
  • Na Croácia , raiz-forte ralada na hora (em croata: Hren) costuma ser comida com presunto ou carne cozida .
  • Na Eslovênia , e nas regiões italianas adjacentes de Friuli Venezia Giulia e na região italiana de Veneto , o rábano (muitas vezes ralado e misturado com creme de leite, vinagre, ovos cozidos ou maçãs) também é um prato tradicional de Páscoa .
  • Nas regiões italianas da Lombardia , Emilia-Romagna e Piemonte , é chamado de «barbaforte (barba forte)» e é um acompanhamento tradicional para bollito misto ; enquanto em regiões do nordeste como Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol , [25] Veneto [26] e Friuli-Venezia Giulia , [27] [28] ainda é chamado de «kren» ou «cren». Na região sul da Basilicata é conhecido como «rafano» e utilizado para a preparação da chamada » rafanata «, um prato principal à base de raiz — forte , ovos, queijo e enchidos. [29]
  • O rábano também é usado como ingrediente principal para sopas. Na Polônia , a sopa de raiz-forte é um prato comum no dia da Páscoa . [30]

Relação com wasabi

Fora do Japão, o condimento japonês wasabi , embora tradicionalmente preparado a partir da verdadeira planta wasabi ( Wasabia japonica ), agora é geralmente feito com raiz- forte devido à escassez da planta wasabi. [31] O nome botânico japonês para raiz- forte é seiyōwasabi ( セ イ ヨ ウ ワ サ ビ, 西洋 山葵 ) , ou «wasabi ocidental». Ambas as plantas são membros da família Brassicaceae .

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